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The Ukraine war in maps: Russia shells major cities and repositions troops | International


March 31 | New shelling but no advance

Russian forces continued to shell major cities, including the capital Kyiv, Chernihiv and Kharkiv. Despite Moscow’s claims that it would scale back operations and focus on the eastern region of the Donbas, recent attacks appeared to be targeting key infrastructure in these cities, such as fuel storage sites, in order to inflict damage on Ukraine’s logistical operations, said regional authorities.

Fighting continued in Brovary, northeast of Kyiv, and there was movement of Russian troops in a northern direction, possibly signaling a redeployment to other axes of advance, said the Institute for the Study of War (ISW).


Coity controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled

by the Russian

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

There was significant Russian shelling and missile strikes around Chernihiv, according to the UK Defense Ministry’s intelligence update, and also around Kharkiv, where around 15% of buildings have been destroyed, according to the mayor.

In the east, Ukrainian forces repelled several Russian attacks in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, according to the ISW. Further south, on the shore of the Sea of Azov, Russian troops continued to take territory in Mariupol, and reportedly have much of the city under their control.

Although Russia has not launched any clear offensives in the last few days, the ISW noted that it has been deploying support personnel and auxiliary units to replace combat losses. It is still unclear how the new strategy will play out.

According to the Ukrainian General Staff, the death of Russian officials is impeding the army’s ability to reorganize and find replacements.

March 30 | Russian troops still near Kyiv

The Russian army is maintaining its positions near Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine, despite the strategy change announced by the Kremlin last week, when it said the focus would shift to the eastern Donbas region. According to the Institute for the Study of War (ISW), “Russian forces continued fighting to hold their forwardmost positions on the eastern and western Kyiv outskirts even as badly damaged units withdrew to Russia from elsewhere on the Kyiv and Chernihiv axes.”

The Russians continued to actively resist Ukrainian counteroffensives in Irpin and Hostomel, according to the ISW. There were troops in the areas of Bucha and Nemishyev, northwest of Irpin, and artillery fire was being aimed at Ukrainian positions north and west of the capital. There were strikes against Makariv and Irpin, which were shelled on Tuesday.


City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

However, both the ISW and the UK Defense Ministry believe that the Russian offensive has failed in its attempt to encircle Kyiv, at least for now. Russian statements and reports of Russian troops retreating into Belarus might indicate that Russia has accepted the loss of initiative in the region.

Russia intensified its efforts in northeast Ukraine, probably to try to connect its positions southeast of Kharkiv and Izium with its forces in the eastern Luhansk region.

In the east, the Russian advance in Mariupol continued to gain ground. According to the ISW, the city could fall within days.

March 29 | Russia not giving up on Kyiv

Ukrainian troops may have regained control of Irpin, a suburb located northwest of Kyiv, according to the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) and the Ukrainian General Staff. This would be the third area to be controlled by local forces around the capital in the last week. Maintaining this position will be key in the effort to repel the Russian troops that reached the outskirts of the capital from the Dnipro River.

Despite the Kremlin’s announcement that it was shifting its focus to the eastern Donbas region, the Russians do not appear to have given up on their attempts to encircle Kyiv.

Along the Chernihiv-Sumy axis, which is being used by Russian troops to advance towards Kyiv, the Ukrainian counteroffensive has achieved some results. Following several days of fighting in Brovary, Ukraine appears to have stalled the Russian forces and regained control of Rudinstke.

This may be happening, according to the same sources, because Ukrainian defenders are taking advantage of ongoing Russian force rotations. Russian troops have barely made any progress in recent days as they work to resolve logistical issues. According to the ISW, “Russian conscription efforts, which Ukrainian intelligence expects to begin on April 1, are unlikely to provide Russian forces around Ukraine with sufficient combat power to restart major offensive operations in the near term.”


City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

In the east, Russian forces continued to bomb Kharkiv, the second-largest city in Ukraine, but made no significant gains and did not launch ground attacks. According to UK intelligence reports, the Russians may already be deploying a private mercenary group known as the Warner Group, whose members have combat experience in Syria and Lybia. Their presence had been noted earlier, but it was thought that the group was made up of small units. Now, over 1,000 fighters are expected to be deployed in the eastern area alone.

In the south, Russian troops continued to make gains in Mariupol, the Ukrainian General Staff admitted. However, the Russians have reportedly suffered “great losses.”

March 28 | Slow Russian advance

In the first hours since Russia changed its focus (it says it will now concentrate on the Donbas region), the only progress made by troops was near Mariupol, where they were said to be trying to capture the port, according to the UK Defense Ministry’s intelligence update. The city, which has been withstanding heavy attacks for a month, is a key location to control access to the Sea of Azov.

In northern Ukraine, fighting continued outside the capital, Kyiv, where loud explosions were heard before dawn, according to The New York Times. There have been several Ukrainian counterattacks in the areas of Brovary in the east and Irpin in the west. Two weeks ago, Russian advances in these areas suggested an imminent attack on the capital, but this has not yet happened, presumably due to Russia’s logistical problems.


City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

The eastern front is taking on special relevance following the Kremlin’s strategy change. There were reports of recent fighting in Sumy and Izyum, where the Russians were moving south while the Ukrainian defense was holding out in the north, “likely hindering Russian capabilities to resume offensive operations in the southern direction,” according to the ISW.

March 27 | No change in sight

Although the Russian Defense Ministry said on Friday that efforts would be focused on the Donbas region, an assessment by the ISW did not observe any changes to Russian activities near Kyiv. According to this research institute, troops continued to try to secure positions from which to attack or encircle the Ukrainian capital. Allies and the Ukrainian government were also wary of Russia’s announcement.


City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

Two missiles hit Lviv, 60 kilometers from the Polish border, on Saturday. And the UK Defense Ministry said on Sunday that the Russian air force continued to attack targets across Ukraine.

The battleground in northern Ukraine was largely static, said the UK intelligence report. In those areas, counterattacks are hindering Russian attempts to reorganize. On Saturday, Ukrainian forces launched small counterattacks near Kharkiv, in the northeast.

In the east, UK services said they believed that Russian forces are being concentrated in order to try to surround Ukrainian troops in the Donbas, advancing from Kharkiv in the north and Mariupol in the south.

The ISW believes that Mariupol may come under Russian control soon. Fighting continued in the city, and Russian forces continued to sustain significant losses.

March 26 | A change in strategy?

Reports varied regarding the situation on the fronts. Russian forces on Friday said they intended to reduce their military targets and shift their focus to the Donbas region. However, an assessment by the ISW questioned this statement and considered it an attempt to adjust the narrative so that Russia’s limited progress of the past few weeks will look like it was part of the plan.

The news agency Reuters on Saturday said that reports of intense fighting in different parts of the country suggest that there will be no swift end to the conflict. Two missiles struck Lviv on Saturday afternoon, producing large columns of smoke. The mayor confirmed that the attacks damaged an industrial facility used for fuel storage and injured five people.


City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled

by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

City controlled by the Russians

Annexed by Russia

in 2014

Note: What does “control” mean? It requires exerting a physical influence over an area to prevent its use by the enemy. It could be achieved by occupying the area or by holding power over it with weapons. It does not imply any form of governance or legitimacy. Sources: Institute for the Study of War and American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project (for advances and areas under control); UK intelligence (besieged cities); EL PAÍS and other sources (fighting and airstrikes).

There was also fighting around Kyiv. The ISW registered minor progress by Ukrainian counterattacks north of the capital, with images confirming the presence of local troops in parts of Irpin that were earlier under Russian control. Invading troops were also forced back around Brovary.



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